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What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic?

In ultrasonic welding, ultrasonic transducers play a decisive role. We can often see several ceramics and electrode sheets sandwiched in the middle of the ultrasonic transducer. Have you ever wondered what role these ceramics with electrode sheets play in the ultrasonic transducer? Why choose ceramics as the material?

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic

Material Properties of Piezoelectric Ceramics

Piezoelectric ceramics are made from a variety of ceramic materials, including lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate, and lead metaniobate. We plate one side of the ceramics with silver and add a copper sheet to the other side, which becomes the two electrodes of the ceramics. When subjected to pressure or vibration, the crystal structure within a ceramic piece generates an electrical charge.In addition, ceramic sheets are also resistant to high temperatures and chemically inert.

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic
What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic?

Piezoelectric Effect and Inverse Piezoelectric Effect

The piezoelectric effect was first discovered by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. They found that when pressure was applied to certain crystals, such as quartz, an electric charge was produced. In piezoelectric ceramics, the piezoelectric effect is due to the alignment of positive and negative charges within the crystal lattice. When the piezoelectric ceramic piece receives an external force from the vertical direction, it will cause an imbalance of positive and negative charges on the electrodes at both ends. At this time, a voltage will be generated and a current will be generated through the circuit.

On the contrary, when these piezoelectric ceramics are energized, the ceramic pieces will deform and vibrate, releasing mechanical kinetic energy. When the frequency is higher, ultrasonic waves can be generated. This is the so-called inverse piezoelectric effect.

The transducer can transform electrical energy into ultrasonic waves when linked to the electrical box, specifically due to these ceramic plates and electrode sheets.

Why Choose Ceramics as The Material?

1. High electromechanical coupling coefficient. Piezoelectric ceramics can convert electrical and mechanical energy in both directions with high efficiency and low loss.

2. High sensitivity. It can respond to tiny pressure, deformation, shock or vibration, and convert it into detectable electrical signals.

3. Good stability. Piezoelectric ceramics have stable performance under certain temperatures, humidity, pressure or stress conditions, and are not prone to aging and oxidation.

4. Excellent mechanical properties: high hardness, good oxidation resistance, wear resistance.

5. High-temperature resistance and corrosion resistance.

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic
What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic

How do you choose piezoelectric ceramics suitable for ultrasonic equipment?

1. The dielectric constant £ should be moderate.

Typically, the dielectric constant ranges from 10 to 1000. If the dielectric constant is too large, it will lead to direct coupling between the interdigital electrodes;

On the contrary, the impedance will be too large, which is not conducive to the connection between the circuit and the device. Among piezoelectric ceramic materials, except for some ceramic materials with higher dielectric constants, the others are basically between 200-1000.

2. A good surface suitable for manufacturing interdigital electrodes can be obtained through processing.

After a series of processing and high-temperature treatments, grain size and pore size are the main indicators of piezoelectric ceramic materials used in ultrasonic surface wave devices.

3. The transmission attenuation of ultrasonic surface waves should be small.

The attenuation of ultrasonic surface wave transmission is related to the physical properties and surface state of the piezoelectric ceramic material itself. If the holes and grains are too large, scattering losses will occur, and at the same time, friction losses during vibration between grains will also cause attenuation.

Piezo Ceramic Accessories Supplier

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic

Piezo ceramic rings are specially designed for ultrasonic welding transducers.

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic

PZT8-ow dielectric loss and strong anti-depolarization ability under the action of mechanical force.High energy efficiency conversion rate and output efficiency

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic12

Crafted with high-quality ceramic materials, these plates exhibit excellent performance and reliability in ultrasonic welding applications.

What is a Piezoelectric Ceramic

Our ceramic plates are specifically designed to be the essential core components for ultrasonic welding transducers.

  • K&M Technologies Ltd is a one-stop solution provider in the ultrasonic business, we can provide you with ultrasonic plastic welding machines, ultrasonic metal welding machines, ultrasonic welding systems,   ultrasonic food cutting systems, and customization of various ultrasonic accessories.

What is electromechanical coupling coefficient?

The electromechanical coupling coefficient is an index that reflects the mutual conversion efficiency of electrical energy and mechanical energy. Generally speaking, the higher the index, the higher the energy conversion efficiency. KNM TECH provides various specifications of piezoelectric ceramics and transducers for you to choose from.

Applications of piezoelectric ceramics

Piezoelectric ceramics can realize the mutual conversion of electrical energy and sound energy. It is often used for ocean exploration, precision measurement, ultrasonic cleaning, medical imaging, etc.

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